Enzymes

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1. Enzymes Overview

Here’s an experiment you should try at home.

Take any starchy food (a cracker, a piece of white bread, or a spoonful of mashed potatoes). Place it in your mouth and chew for a long time—an uncomfortably long time. Close your eyes, and focus on your taste buds. After a while, the starchy taste will be accompanied by the taste of sugar. Where did that sugar come from?

08_starch, amylase, maltoseStarch is a polymer of glucose. In your saliva, you have an enzyme called amylase. When you eat any food with starch, amylase breaks the starch into maltose, a disaccharide.

Enzymes are the substances that control the chemical reactions that occur in all living things – bacterial cells, daffodils, lizards, and, people. It’s hard to overstate their importance. Let’s see how they work.

2. Enzymes and Activation Energy

Enzymes are protein catalysts that speed up the chemical reactions in living things. Catalysts are substances that participate in a chemical reaction, without being changed or used up by the reaction. However much enzyme is present at the start of a reaction is how much there will be at the end.

Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction. To understand this, think about a reactant (the chemical or chemicals that go into a chemical reaction) as a rock high on a hill (see “A” in the diagram below). Similarly, think of a product (the chemical or chemicals that come out of a chemical reaction) as that same rock, lower down on the same hill (as shown by letter “B”).

activation energy 1

The rock’s energy can only be released if you give the rock a push. That push is represented by “C.”

The push needed to start a reaction is activation energy. And one of the key roles of enzymes in any biological system is to lower the activation energy required to bring about the chemical reactions that sustain life.

Here’s how an enzyme would change the picture above.

activation energy 2(with enzyme)In this image, the rock still has the same amount of energy at the start (A) and at the end (B). The only thing that’s changed is the addition of the enzyme (attached to the rock up at “A”) Notice that the height of “D”, which represents the energy of the push you need to get the rock rolling down the hill, is now lower than the push that you needed before addition of the enzyme (“C” in the previous diagram). That’s what enzymes do: they lower activation energy.

That might not sound important, but it is. Think of how much heat is released when a car burns gasoline. That level of heat is typical of the activation energy required to make chemical reactions happen in non-living systems (like a car). In living organisms, the temperatures are always much lower. The only reason why they happen is because enzymes are moving those reactions along. Your body has thousands of enzymes, at work every second, controlling the reactions that keep you going.

To make sure you understand this, label the diagram below.

[qwiz style = “width: 640px; border: 3px solid black; “qrecord_id=”dank-enzyme_quiz1”]
[h] Enzymes and Activation energy

[i]

[q labels = “top”]

 

[l]activation energy with an enzyme

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]activation energy without an enzyme

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]overall energy released by the reaction

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]entire reaction with an enzyme

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]entire reaction without an enzyme

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]product

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]reactant

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]

3. Enzymes are highly specific

The thing that an enzyme acts upon is called a substrate. As a general rule, each enzyme interacts with only one substrate. For example, amylase, the enzyme discussed above, can break down the polysaccharide starch into the disaccharide maltose. Amylase won’t break down protein. It won’t break down fat. It won’t even break down other polysaccharides, such as cellulose (plant fiber).

enzymesSubstrateIn the image at left, you can see the interaction between an enzyme and its substrate. The enzyme (1) binds with the substrate (3) at a specific region of the enzyme called the active site (2). The fit between an enzyme’s active site and the enzyme’s substrate is as specific as the fit between a lock and a key. In the same way as a lock will respond to only one key, the enzyme can only act upon substrates that fit into its active site.

To visualize enzymes in action, let’s go back to the digestion of starch. Imagine that you’re eating a potato (which is mostly starch). As you chew on the potato, you expose the starch to saliva, which contains the enzyme amylase. If the amylase bumps into the starch in the right orientation, then the starch will bind with amylase, forming an enzyme substrate complex (shown above at 4). The enzyme will break to bonds holding the starch together, and release its product (shown at 5). Note that the enzyme (1) is unchanged, and ready to break down more substrate.

An extension of the lock and key idea is the notion of “induced fit.” When an enzyme binds with a substrate it actually changes its shape. You can see this illustrated below. Notice how the shape of the enzyme (represented in gray) slightly changes after it binds with its substrate.

06_induced fit

Induced fit, from wikipedia

 

Keep in mind that while all of my examples above show enzymes breaking things apart, enzymes are also used to build the molecules that your body is made of.

[qwiz style = “width: 640px; border: 3px solid black; “qrecord_id=”dank-enzyme-quiz2”]
[h] Enzymes and substrates: interactive diagrams

[q labels = “top”]

 

[l]active site

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]enzyme

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]enzyme-substrate complex

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]product

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]substrate

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[q labels = “top”]

 

[l]product

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]substrate

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]enzyme-substrate complex

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]enzyme

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]active site

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]active site modified by induced fit

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]enzyme still bound to product

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]

4. Enzymes and their environment

Most enzymes have specific environmental conditions in which they work best. Working best means catalyzing more reactions in a given time. The best conditions are called “optimal.”

09_Denatured-enzyme

denaturation, from http://sciencelearn.org.nz/

The reason why this is so is that enzymes only work if they fit with their substrate: their shape, especially, at the active site, is all-important. Because enzymes are proteins, their shape is based on many interactions between the amino acids that make up the enzyme. If you change an enzyme’s environment, you’ll change its shape, which will decrease or block its ability to interact with its substrate. This process of changing an enzyme’s shape in a way that reduces its activity is called denaturation. And an enzyme that has lost its activity in this way is said to be denatured.

enzymesPh

Enzymes and pH

Here’s graph that shows how changing pH (how acidic or basic a solution is) can change enzyme activity and cause denaturation. Here’s how to understand the graph.

The Y axis in this graph is level of enzyme activity. The higher on the Y axis, the more the enzyme is interacting with its substrate and changing it into product. Notice that the highest level is at number 2 (which represents some number on the pH scale). In other words, whatever pH is below number 2 is the pH optimum (the best pH for this enzyme).

If you lower the pH below the optimum (making the solution more acidic), the enzyme’s activity falls. At number 1, the activity is very low, because the solution is too acidic. That acidity has denatured the enzyme. Similarly, if you increase the pH above the optimum, the activity level also falls. That’s what is happening at number 3.

enzymesTemperatureEnzymes are also affected by temperature. The impact of temperature usually fits the graph shown at left. In very cold temperatures, enzymes won’t catalyze much. That’s because cold means that the molecules aren’t moving. There’s very little chance that the enzyme will bump into its substrate and be able to catalyze its reaction. This low level of activity due to cold is shown at number 1.

As temperatures increase, molecules start to move faster. Collisions between enzyme and substrate increase in frequency. The rising line between 1 and 2 represents this increase in activity.

At number 2, the enzyme is operating at its optimal rate, converting as much substrate as it can into product. However, if the temperature rises too much, the enzyme gets denatured by the heat (much like cooking meat changes its character, too much heat cooks the enzyme). At that point, the enzyme can’t bind with its substrate, and its activity falls to zero.

Denaturation of enzymes is closely related to the body’s need for homeostasis (your body’s need to maintain consistent internal conditions). Your kidneys, for example, are constantly adjusting the pH of your blood. Your skin and circulatory system work to keep your temperature constant. It’s all to keep your enzymes operating at an optimal level.

5. Enzymes Flashcards

The flashcards that follow will help you to master the following key terms related to enzymes. To see a definition, just hover your cursor over any of the terms.

  1. Catalyst
  2. Enzyme
  3. Chemical Reaction
  4. Activation energy
  5. Reactant
  6. Product
  7. Substrate
  8. Active Site
  9. Enzyme-Substrate Complex
  10. Lock and Key Model
  11. Induced Fit Model
  12. Optimum
  13. Denature

[qdeck style=”width: 528px; border: 2px solid black; ” qrecord_id=”dank-enzyme-deck1″]

[h] Flashcards: Enzymes

[i] If you haven’t used a set of flashcards on sciencemusicvideos before, here’s what you need to know.

  • Click ‘Check Answer’ to see the answer to each card.
  • If you know it, click ‘Got it.”
  • If you don’t know it as well as you’d like, click ‘Need more practice,’ and that card will go to the bottom of the deck so you can practice it again.
  • ‘Shuffle’ lets you shuffle the deck.

[!]Card 1++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]A process in which substances interact in a way that changes ionic or covalent bonds is called a _________ __________ [textentry]

[a]A process in which substances interact in a way that changes ionic or covalent bonds is called a chemical reaction.

[!]Card 2++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]In a chemical reaction, the substances that participate in the reaction are called [textentry]

[a]In a chemical reaction, the substances that participate in the reaction are called reactants.

[!]Card 3++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]In a chemical reaction, the substances that result from the reaction are called [textentry]

[a]In a chemical reaction, the substances that result from the reaction are called products.

[!]Card 4++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction is a(n)[textentry]

[a]A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction is a catalyst.

[!]Card 5++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]The protein catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells are called [textentry]

[a]The protein catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells are called enzymes.

[!] CARD 6+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]The energy required to get a chemical reaction started is known as __________ energy.
[textentry]
[a]The energy required to get a chemical reaction started is known as activation energy.

[!] CARD 7+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]The substance an enzyme acts upon is called the [textentry]
[a]The substance an enzyme acts upon is called the substrate

[!] CARD 8+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]The specific area on an enzyme where it binds with its substrate is called its _______ _______ [textentry]
[a]The specific area on an enzyme where it binds with its substrate is called its active site

[!] CARD 9+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]At the moment when an enzyme binds with its substrate at the active site, it forms an ___________-_____________ __________. [textentry]
[a]At the moment when an enzyme binds with its substrate at the active site, it forms an enzyme-substrate complex.

[!] CARD 10+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]The idea that a substrate usually has only one enzyme that it can interact with is captured in the __________ ____ ____________ model  [textentry]
[a]The idea that a substrate usually has only one enzyme that it can interact is captured in the lock and key model

[!] CARD 11+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]The idea that in an enzyme-substrate complex, an enzyme will bend in a way that stresses the bonds of the substrate is called the _________-_________ model of enzyme action.  [textentry]
[a]The idea that in an enzyme-substrate complex, an enzyme will bend in a way that stresses the bonds of the substrate is called the induced-fit model of enzyme action.

[!] CARD 12+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]Every enzyme has a pH or temperature ___________ at which it functions best. [textentry]
[a]Every enzyme has a pH or temperature optimum at which it functions best.

[!] CARD 13+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]When heat, pH changes, or other factors in an enzyme’s environment cause it to change shape, the enzyme loses its ability to function. At that point, the enzyme is said to be [textentry]
[a]When heat, pH changes, or other factors in an enzyme’s environment cause it to change shape, the enzyme loses its ability to function. At that point, the enzyme is said to be denatured.

[x]

If you want more practice, please press the restart button below. Otherwise, follow the links below.
[restart]
[/qdeck]

6. An enzymes quiz

[qwiz style = “width: 640px; border: 3px solid black; ” qrecord_id=”dank-test1″]
[h] Quiz: Enzymes
[i] Here’s how the quiz works:

  • Each question is multiple choice, but the entire quiz is like a series of flashcards.
  • If you get the question right, it comes off the deck.
  • If you get the question wrong, it goes to the bottom of the deck, so you can try it again.

[!] Question 1++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A substance produced by an organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction is a

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[q] Use the choices below to label the enzyme, the substrate, and the enzyme-substrate complex.

[l]enzyme

[fx] No, that’s not correct.  Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]enzyme-substrate complex

[fx] No, that’s not correct.  Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]product

[fx] No.  Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]substrate

[!] Question 2++++++++++++++[/!]

[fx] No, that’s not correct.  Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[q] Biochemically, enzymes are almost always

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[c]IHByb2R1Y3Q8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IHRhcmdldDwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[c]IHJlYWN0YW50PC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[c]IHN1YnN0cmF0ZTwvcD4K PHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBBbiBlbnp5bWUgY2F0YWx5emVzIGEgcmVhY3Rpb24sIGFuZCBhIHByb2R1Y3QgaXMgd2hhdCByZXN1bHRzLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSDigJh0YXJnZXTigJkgaXMgYSBsb2dpY2FsIGNob2ljZSwgdGhlcmXigJlzIGEgc3BlY2lhbCB3b3JkIGZvciB0aGUgc3Vic3RhbmNlPHNwYW4gY2xhc3M9IkFwcGxlLWNvbnZlcnRlZC1zcGFjZSI+wqAgPC9zcGFuPnRoYXQgYW4gZW56eW1lIGFjdHMgdXBvbi48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBUaGF04oCZcyBhIHZlcnkgbG9naWNhbCBhbmQgZ2VuZXJhbCBjaG9pY2UsIGJ1dCB0aGVyZeKAmXMgYSBtb3JlIHNwZWNpZmljIGFuc3dlci48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIEVuenltZXMgYWN0IHVwb24gc3Vic3RyYXRlcy48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+WyFdIFF1ZXN0aW9uIDQrKysrKysrKysrKysrK1svIV08L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[q] From the choices below, choose the best match: Enzymes fit with their substrates as a _______________ fits with a __________________.

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[c]IG1vZGlmaWVkIGJpbmRpbmc8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBhcHByb3hpbWF0aW9uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[c]IGFkYXB0aXZlIGNvbmZvcm1hdGlvbjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[c]IGluZHVjZWQgZml0PC9wPg o8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[c]IGVuenltYXRpYyBhZGFwdGF0aW9uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBZb3VyIGNob2ljZSBpcyBhIHNlbnNpYmxlIGRlc2NyaXB0aW9uLCBidXQgdGhhdOKAmXMgbm90IHRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIHRoaXMgbW9kZWwgb2YgZW56eW1lLXN1YnN0cmF0ZSBpbnRlcmFjdGlvbi4gVGhlIGNvcnJlY3QgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGUgbW9kZWwgaGFzIHRvIGRvIHdpdGggYW4gaW1wcm92ZWQgZml0IGNvbWluZyBhYm91dCBiZXR3ZWVuIGVuenltZSBhbmQgc3Vic3RyYXRlLiBUaGluayBhYm91dCB0aGF0ICh3aGljaCwgYnkgdGhlIHdheSwgaW5jbHVkZXMgYSBodWdlIGhpbnQpIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBZb3VyIGNob2ljZSBpcyBhIHNlbnNpYmxlIGRlc2NyaXB0aW9uLCBidXQgdGhhdOKAmXMgbm90IHRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIHRoaXMgbW9kZWwgb2YgZW56eW1lLXN1YnN0cmF0ZSBpbnRlcmFjdGlvbi4gVGhlIGNvcnJlY3QgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGUgbW9kZWwgaGFzIHRvIGRvIHdpdGggYW4gaW1wcm92ZWQgZml0IGNvbWluZyBhYm91dCBiZXR3ZWVuIGVuenltZSBhbmQgc3Vic3RyYXRlLiBUaGluayBhYm91dCB0aGF0ICh3aGljaCwgYnkgdGhlIHdheSwgaW5jbHVkZXMgYSBodWdlIGhpbnQpIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBZb3VyIGNob2ljZSBpcyBhIHNlbnNpYmxlIGRlc2NyaXB0aW9uLCBidXQgdGhhdOKAmXMgbm90IHRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIHRoaXMgbW9kZWwgb2YgZW56eW1lLXN1YnN0cmF0ZSBpbnRlcmFjdGlvbi4gVGhlIGNvcnJlY3QgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGUgbW9kZWwgaGFzIHRvIGRvIHdpdGggYW4gaW1wcm92ZWQgZml0IGNvbWluZyBhYm91dCBiZXR3ZWVuIGVuenltZSBhbmQgc3Vic3RyYXRlLiBUaGluayBhYm91dCB0aGF0ICh3aGljaCwgYnkgdGhlIHdheSwgaW5jbHVkZXMgYSBodWdlIGhpbnQpIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIFRoZSBpZGVhIGhlcmUgaXMgdGhhdCB0aGUgYmluZGluZyBvZiBlbnp5bWUgYW5kIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBpbmR1Y2VzIChjYXVzZXMpIGEgbW9kaWZpY2F0aW9uIGluIHRoZSBzaGFwZSBvZiB0aGUgZW56eW1l4oCZcyBhY3RpdmUgc2l0ZSwgd2hpY2ggaW1wcm92ZXMgaXRzIGJpbmRpbmcgd2l0aCB0aGUgc3Vic3RyYXRlIGFuZCBhc3Npc3RzIGluIGluIGNvbnZlcnRpbmcgdGhlIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBpbnRvIHRoZSBwcm9kdWN0LjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]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[q] An enzyme binds its substrate at its

[c]IHJlYWN0aW9uIHNpdGU8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IGJpbmRpbmcgc2l0ZTwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[c]IGFjdGl2ZSBzaXRlPC9wPg o8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]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[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZW56eW1lIHdpbGwgYmluZCB3aXRoIHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUsIGJ1dCB0aGVyZeKAmXMgYSBzcGVjaWZpYyB3b3JkIGZvciB0aGlzIGJpbmRpbmcgYXJlYS4gQmVjYXVzZSBhbiBlbnp5bWUgaXMgYSB0aHJlZSBkaW1lbnNpb25hbCBvYmplY3QsIG9ubHkgYSBzbWFsbCBwYXJ0IG9mIGl0cyBzdXJmYWNlIGlzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGFjdGl2ZWx5IHRvdWNoIHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUgYW5kIGludGVyYWN0IHdpdGggaXQgaW4gYSB3YXkgdGhhdCBjYXRhbHl6ZXMgdGhlIHJlYWN0aW9uLiBTZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaW5kIHRoZSBodWdlIGhpbnQgaW4gdGhlIHByZXZpb3VzIHNlbnRlbmNlLCBhbmQgdXNlIGl0IHRvIGFuc3dlciB0aGlzIGNvcnJlY3RseSBuZXh0IHRpbWUuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IFRlcnJpZmljLiBUaGUgZW56eW1lIGJpbmRzIHdpdGggaXRzIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBhdCBpdHMgYWN0aXZlIHNpdGUuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPlshXSBRdWVzdGlvbiA3KysrKysrKysrKysrKytbLyFdPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[q] The relationship in shape between enzyme and substrate is best described as

[c]IGNvbXBsZW1lbnRhcnk8L3 A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IGNvbnRyYXN0aW5nPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[c]IGEgbWlycm9yIGltYWdlPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[c]IGhhcm1vbmlvdXM8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIFRoZSBzaGFwZSBvZiBhbiBlbnp5bWUgZml0cyB3aXRoIHRoZSBzaGFwZSBvZiBhIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBpbiBhIGNvbXBsZW1lbnRhcnkgd2F5LCBsaWtlIHR3byBwaWVjZXMgb2YgYSBwdXp6bGUuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBUcnkgdG8gZmluZCBhIHdvcmQgdGhhdCBjb252ZXlzIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgZW56eW1lcyBmaXQgd2l0aCB0aGVpciBzdWJzdHJhdGVzIGxpa2UgcGllY2VzIG9mIGEgcHV6emxlIGZpdCB0b2dldGhlci48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgc2hhcGUgb2YgYW4gZW56eW1lIGFuZCBhIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBmaXQgdG9nZXRoZXIsIGJ1dCB0aGV54oCZcmUgbm90IG1pcnJvciBpbWFnZXMuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSB3b3JkIHRoYXQgY29udmV5cyB0aGlzIOKAmGZpdHRpbmcgdG9nZXRoZXIu4oCZPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLCBidXQgdGhhdOKAmXMgYW4gaW50ZXJlc3RpbmcgY2hvaWNlLiBTb3VuZHMgdGhhdCBmaXQgdG9nZXRoZXIgYXJlIGhhcm1vbmlvdXMuIEJ1dCB0aGVyZeKAmXMgYSBjaG9pY2UgdGhhdCBiZXR0ZXIgY29udmV5cyB0aGUgbWF0Y2hpbmcgZml0IGJldHdlZW4gZW56eW1lIGFuZCBzdWJzdHJhdGUuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPlshXSBRdWVzdGlvbiA4KysrKysrKysrKysrKytbLyFdPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[q] If you added 4 milligrams of an enzyme to a reaction, and were able to recover all of the available enzyme at the reaction’s end, how much enzyme should you be able to recover?

[c]IDQgbWlsaWdyYW1zPC9wPg o8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[c]IDIgbWlsbGlncmFtczwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[c]IDggbWlsbGlncmFtczwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[c]IDAgbWlsbGlncmFtczwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IFRoYXTigJlzIHJpZ2h0LiBFbnp5bWVzIGFyZSBjYXRhbHlzdHMgdGhhdCBhcmUgbm90IGNvbnN1bWVkIGluIHRoZSByZWFjdGlvbnMgdGhleSBwYXJ0aWNpcGF0ZSBpbi4gVGhlcmVmb3JlLCB5b3Ugc2hvdWxkIGJlIGFibGUgdG8gcmVjb3ZlciBhdCB0aGUgZW5kIGFsbCBvZiB0aGUgZW56eW1lIHRoYXQgeW91IGhhZCBhdCB0aGUgc3RhcnQuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBFbnp5bWVzIGFyZSBjYXRhbHlzdHMgdGhhdCBhcmUgbm90IGNvbnN1bWVkIGluIHRoZSByZWFjdGlvbnMgdGhleSBwYXJ0aWNpcGF0ZSBpbi4gVGhlcmVmb3JlLCB5b3Ugc2hvdWxkIGJlIGFibGUgdG8gcmVjb3ZlciBhdCB0aGUgZW5kIGFsbCBvZiB0aGUgZW56eW1lIHRoYXQgeW91IGhhZCBhdCB0aGUgc3RhcnQuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBFbnp5bWVzIGFyZSBjYXRhbHlzdHMgdGhhdCBhcmUgbm90IGNvbnN1bWVkIGluIHRoZSByZWFjdGlvbnMgdGhleSBwYXJ0aWNpcGF0ZSBpbi4gVGhlcmVmb3JlLCB5b3Ugc2hvdWxkIGJlIGFibGUgdG8gcmVjb3ZlciBhdCB0aGUgZW5kIGFsbCBvZiB0aGUgZW56eW1lIHRoYXQgeW91IGhhZCBhdCB0aGUgc3RhcnQuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBFbnp5bWVzIGFyZSBjYXRhbHlzdHMgdGhhdCBhcmUgbm90IGNvbnN1bWVkIGluIHRoZSByZWFjdGlvbnMgdGhleSBwYXJ0aWNpcGF0ZSBpbi4gVGhlcmVmb3JlLCB5b3Ugc2hvdWxkIGJlIGFibGUgdG8gcmVjb3ZlciBhdCB0aGUgZW5kIGFsbCBvZiB0aGUgZW56eW1lIHRoYXQgeW91IGhhZCBhdCB0aGUgc3RhcnQuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPlshXSBRdWVzdGlvbiA5KysrKysrKysrKysrKytbLyFdPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[q] In the diagram below that shows the progress of two chemical reactions, which number shows the pathway of the reaction when it’s catalyzed by an enzyme?

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDQ8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSBzaG93cyB0aGUgcHJvZ3Jlc3Mgb2YgYSBub24tZW56eW1lIGNhdGFseXplZCByZWFjdGlvbi4gWW91IGNhbiB0ZWxsIGJlY2F1c2UgdGhlIGFjdGl2YXRpb24gZW5lcmd5IHJlcXVpcmVkIHRvIGdldCB0aGUgcmVhY3Rpb24gZ29pbmcgKHNob3duIGF0IDQpIGlzIG11Y2ggaGlnaGVyIHRoYW4gdGhlIGFjdGl2YXRpb24gZW5lcmd5IHJlcXVpcmVkIHdpdGggYW4gZW56eW1lIChzaG93biBhdCAzKS4gS2VlcCB0aGF0IGluIG1pbmQgd2hlbiB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWdhaW4uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgTnVtYmVyIDIgc2hvd3MgdGhlIHByb2dyZXNzIG9mIGFuIGVuenltZSBjYXRhbHl6ZWQgcmVhY3Rpb24uIFlvdSBjYW4gdGVsbCBiZWNhdXNlIHRoZSBhY3RpdmF0aW9uIGVuZXJneSByZXF1aXJlZCB0byBnZXQgdGhlIHJlYWN0aW9uIGdvaW5nIChzaG93biBhdCAzKSBpcyBtdWNoIGxvd2VyIHRoYW4gdGhlIGFjdGl2YXRpb24gZW5lcmd5IHdvdWxkIGJlIHdpdGhvdXQgYW4gZW56eW1lIChzaG93biBhdCA0KS4gTG93ZXJpbmcgYWN0aXZhdGlvbiBlbmVyZ3kgaXMgZXhhY3RseSB3aGF0IGVuenltZXMgZG8uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW914oCZcmUgb24gdGhlIHJpZ2h0IHRyYWNrLiBOdW1iZXIgMyBpcyBzaG93aW5nIHRoZSByZWR1Y2VkIGFtb3VudCBvZiBlbmVyZ3kgcmVxdWlyZWQgdG8gc3RhcnQgYSByZWFjdGlvbiAoYWN0aXZhdGlvbiBlbmVyZ3kpIHdoZW4gYW4gZW56eW1lIGlzIHByZXNlbnQgKGNvbXBhcmUgMyB0byA0KS4gS2VlcCB0aGF0IGluIG1pbmQgd2hlbiB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWdhaW4uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCBzaG93cyB0aGUgYWN0aXZhdGlvbiBlbmVyZ3kgcmVxdWlyZWQgd2hlbiBhbiBlbnp5bWUgaXNu4oCZdCBjYXRhbHl6aW5nIGEgcmVhY3Rpb24uIFRoZSBtYWluIGVmZmVjdCBvZiBhbiBlbnp5bWUgaXMgdG8gbG93ZXIgYWN0aXZhdGlvbiBlbmVyZ3kgKGNvbXBhcmUgbnVtYmVyIDQgdG8gbnVtYmVyIDMpLiBLZWVwIHRoYXQgaW4gbWluZCB3aGVuIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiBhZ2Fpbi48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+WyFdIFF1ZXN0aW9uIDEwKysrKysrKysrKysrKytbLyFdPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[q] In the diagram below that shows the progress of two chemical reactions, which number shows the activation energy of the enzyme catalyzed reaction.

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDQ8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSBzaG93cyB0aGUgcHJvZ3Jlc3Mgb2YgYSBub24tZW56eW1lIGNhdGFseXplZCByZWFjdGlvbi4gWW91IGNhbiB0ZWxsIGJlY2F1c2UgdGhlIGFjdGl2YXRpb24gZW5lcmd5IHJlcXVpcmVkIHRvIGdldCB0aGUgcmVhY3Rpb24gZ29pbmcgKHNob3duIGF0IDQpIGlzIHNvIGhpZ2guIE5vdywga25vd2luZyB3aGF0IG51bWJlciA0IGlzLCBzZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaWd1cmUgb3V0IHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgdG8gdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiB3aGVuIHlvdSBzZWUgaXQgYWdhaW4uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMiBzaG93cyB0aGUgcHJvZ3Jlc3Mgb2YgYW4gZW56eW1lIGNhdGFseXplZCByZWFjdGlvbi4gWW91IGNhbiB0ZWxsIGJlY2F1c2UgdGhlIGFjdGl2YXRpb24gZW5lcmd5IHJlcXVpcmVkIHRvIGdldCB0aGUgcmVhY3Rpb24gZ29pbmcgaXMgbXVjaCBsb3dlciB0aGFuIHRoZSBhY3RpdmF0aW9uIGVuZXJneSB3b3VsZCBiZSB3aXRob3V0IGFuIGVuenltZSAoc2hvd24gYXQgNCkuIFdpdGggdGhhdCBoaW50LCBzZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBnZXQgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiByaWdodCB3aGVuIHlvdSBzZWUgaXQgYWdhaW4uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IEZhbnRhc3RpYy4gTnVtYmVyIDMgaXMgc2hvd2luZyB0aGUgcmVkdWNlZCBhbW91bnQgb2YgZW5lcmd5IHJlcXVpcmVkIHRvIHN0YXJ0IGEgcmVhY3Rpb24gKGFjdGl2YXRpb24gZW5lcmd5KSB3aGVuIGFuIGVuenltZSBpcyBwcmVzZW50IChjb21wYXJlIDMgdG8gNCkuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCBzaG93cyB0aGUgYWN0aXZhdGlvbiBlbmVyZ3kgcmVxdWlyZWQgd2hlbiBhbiBlbnp5bWUgaXNu4oCZdCBjYXRhbHl6aW5nIGEgcmVhY3Rpb24uIFRoZSBtYWluIGVmZmVjdCBvZiBhbiBlbnp5bWUgaXMgdG8gbG93ZXIgYWN0aXZhdGlvbiBlbmVyZ3kuIEtlZXAgdGhhdCBpbiBtaW5kIHdoZW4geW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGFnYWluLCBhbmQgeW91IHNob3VsZCBiZSBhYmxlIHRvIGZpZ3VyZSBpdCBvdXQuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPlshXSBRdWVzdGlvbiAxMSsrKysrKysrKysrKysrWy8hXTwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[q] In the graph below, which line would represent the reaction catalyzed by an enzyme?

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IEV4YWN0bHkhIEVuenltZXMgc3BlZWQgdXAgcmVhY3Rpb24gcmF0ZXMuIFRoYXTigJlzIHdoeSB0aGUgc2xvcGUgb2YgbGluZSBvbmXCoGlzIHN0ZWVwZXI6IG1vcmUgcHJvZHVjdCBpcyBiZWluZyBjb252ZXJ0ZWQgdG8gc3Vic3RyYXRlIG92ZXIgdGltZS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IGlkZWEgb2YgdGhpcyBncmFwaCBpcyB0aGF0IGVuenltZXMgbWFrZSByZWFjdGlvbnMgZ28gZmFzdGVyLiBMaW5lIG51bWJlciBvbmUgaGFzIGEgbGVzcyBzdGVlcCBzbG9wZSB0aGFuIGxpbmUgbnVtYmVyIDIsIGluZGljYXRpbmcgdGhhdCB0aGUgcmF0ZSBvZiBwcm9kdWN0IGNyZWF0aW9uIGlzIGxvd2VyLiBLZWVwIHRoYXQgaW4gbWluZCB3aGVuIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiBhZ2Fpbi48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+WyFdIFF1ZXN0aW9uIDEyKysrKysrKysrKysrKytbLyFdPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[q] In the diagram below, the enzyme-substrate complex is represented by

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDQ8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDU8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIHRoYXQgc2hvd3MgdGhlIGVuenltZSBhbmQgdGhlIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBjb21pbmcgdG9nZXRoZXIgdG8gZm9ybSBhbiBlbnp5bWUtc3Vic3RyYXRlIGNvbXBsZXguPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMiByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBhY3RpdmUgc2l0ZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgd2hlcmUgdGhlIGVuenltZSB3aWxsIGJpbmQgd2l0aCBpdHMgc3Vic3RyYXRlLiBTZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaW5kIGEgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSB0aGF0IHNob3dzIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUgYW5kIHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUgY29taW5nIHRvZ2V0aGVyIHRvIGZvcm0gYW4gZW56eW1lLXN1YnN0cmF0ZSBjb21wbGV4LjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIHRoYXQgc2hvd3MgdGhlIGVuenltZSBhbmQgdGhlIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBjb21pbmcgdG9nZXRoZXIgdG8gZm9ybSBhbiBlbnp5bWUtc3Vic3RyYXRlIGNvbXBsZXguPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IEZhbnRhc3RpYyEgTnVtYmVyIDQgcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgZW56eW1lLXN1YnN0cmF0ZSBjb21wbGV4LjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBwcm9kdWN0cyBvZiB0aGUgcmVhY3Rpb24uIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIHRoYXQgc2hvd3MgdGhlIGVuenltZSBhbmQgdGhlIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBjb21pbmcgdG9nZXRoZXIgdG8gZm9ybSBhbiBlbnp5bWUtc3Vic3RyYXRlIGNvbXBsZXguPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPlshXSBRdWVzdGlvbiAxMysrKysrKysrKysrKysrWy8hXTwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[q] In the diagram below, the active site is represented by

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDQ8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDU8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBlbnRpcmUgZW56eW1lLiBTZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaW5kIGEgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSB0aGF0IHNob3dzIHdoZXJlIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUgd2lsbCBiaW5kIHdpdGggdGhlIHN1YnN0cmF0ZS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IEF3ZXNvbWUhIE51bWJlciAyIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGFjdGl2ZSBzaXRlLCB3aGljaCBpcyB3aGVyZSB0aGUgZW56eW1lIHdpbGwgYmluZCB3aXRoIGl0cyBzdWJzdHJhdGUuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIHRoYXQgc2hvd3Mgd2hlcmUgdGhlIGVuenltZSB3aWxsIGJpbmQgd2l0aCB0aGUgc3Vic3RyYXRlLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUtc3Vic3RyYXRlIGNvbXBsZXguIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIHRoYXQgc2hvd3Mgd2hlcmUgdGhlIGVuenltZSB3aWxsIGJpbmQgd2l0aCB0aGUgc3Vic3RyYXRlLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBwcm9kdWN0cyBvZiB0aGUgcmVhY3Rpb24uIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIHRoYXQgc2hvd3Mgd2hlcmUgdGhlIGVuenltZSB3aWxsIGJpbmQgd2l0aCBpdHMgc3Vic3RyYXRlLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj5bIV0gUXVlc3Rpb24gMTQrKysrKysrKysrKysrK1svIV08L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[q] In the diagram below, the enzyme is represented by

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDQ8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDU8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IFllcyEgTnVtYmVyIDEgcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgZW50aXJlIGVuenltZS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMiByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBhY3RpdmUgc2l0ZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgd2hlcmUgdGhlIGVuenltZSB3aWxsIGJpbmQgd2l0aCBpdHMgc3Vic3RyYXRlLiBTZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaW5kIHRoZSBudW1iZXIgd2hpY2ggcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgZW50aXJlIGVuenltZS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGFib3V0IHRvIGJpbmQgd2l0aCB0aGUgZW56eW1lLiBTZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaW5kIHRoZSBudW1iZXIgd2hpY2ggcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgZW56eW1lLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUtc3Vic3RyYXRlIGNvbXBsZXgsIHdoaWNoIGluY2x1ZGVzIGJvdGggZW56eW1lIGFuZCBzdWJzdHJhdGUsIGF0IGEgbW9tZW50IHdoZW4gdGhlIHR3byBhcmUgdGVtcG9yYXJpbHkgYm9uZGVkIHRvZ2V0aGVyIGFzIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUgY2F0YWx5emVzIGl0cyByZWFjdGlvbi4gU2VlIGlmIHlvdSBjYW4gZmluZCB0aGUgbnVtYmVyIHdoaWNoIHJlcHJlc2VudHMganVzdCB0aGUgZW56eW1lLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBwcm9kdWN0cyBvZiB0aGUgcmVhY3Rpb24uIFRoZSBwcm9kdWN0cywgeW91IGNhbiBzZWUsIHdlcmUgZm9ybWVybHkgdGhlIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgc2hvd24gaW4gdGhlIHNhbWUgY29sb3IuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGlkZW50aWZ5IHRoZSBlbnp5bWUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHRoZSB0aGluZyB0aGF0IGNoYW5nZWQgdGhlIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBpbnRvIHRoZSBwcm9kdWN0cy48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+WyFdIFF1ZXN0aW9uIDE1KysrKysrKysrKysrKytbLyFdPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[q] In the diagram below, the product of the reaction is represented by

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDQ8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDU8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZTxzcGFuIGNsYXNzPSJBcHBsZS1jb252ZXJ0ZWQtc3BhY2UiPsKgIDwvc3Bhbj5lbnp5bWUuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGlkZW50aWZ5IHRoZSBwcm9kdWN0IHRoYXQgdGhlIGVuenltZSBjcmVhdGVzIGFmdGVyIGludGVyYWN0aW5nIHdpdGggdGhlIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgc2hvd24gYXQgbnVtYmVyIDMuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMiByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBhY3RpdmUgc2l0ZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgd2hlcmUgdGhlIGVuenltZSB3aWxsIGJpbmQgd2l0aCBpdHMgc3Vic3RyYXRlLiBTZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBpZGVudGlmeSB0aGUgcHJvZHVjdCB0aGF0IHRoZSBlbnp5bWUgY3JlYXRlcyBhZnRlciBpbnRlcmFjdGluZyB3aXRoIHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHNob3duIGF0IG51bWJlciAzLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGFib3V0IHRvIGJpbmQgd2l0aCB0aGUgZW56eW1lLiBTZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBpZGVudGlmeSB0aGUgcHJvZHVjdCBvZiB0aGUgcmVhY3Rpb24sIHdoaWNoIGlzIHNob3duIGluIHRoZSBzYW1lIGNvbG9yIGFzIHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBhcHBlYXJzIGF0IHRoZSBlbmQgb2YgdGhlIHJlYWN0aW9uLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUtc3Vic3RyYXRlIGNvbXBsZXgsIHdoaWNoIGluY2x1ZGVzIGJvdGggZW56eW1lIGFuZCBzdWJzdHJhdGUuIFRoaXMgY29tcGxleCBmb3JtcyBhcyB0aGUgdHdvIGFyZSB0ZW1wb3JhcmlseSBib25kZWQgdG9nZXRoZXIgYXMgdGhlIGVuenltZSBjYXRhbHl6ZXMgdGhlIHJlYWN0aW9uLiBTZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBpZGVudGlmeSB0aGUgcHJvZHVjdCBvZiB0aGUgcmVhY3Rpb24sIHdoaWNoIGlzIHNob3duIGluIHRoZSBzYW1lIGNvbG9yIGFzIHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBhcHBlYXJzIGF0IHRoZSBlbmQgb2YgdGhlIHJlYWN0aW9uLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC48c3BhbiBjbGFzcz0iQXBwbGUtY29udmVydGVkLXNwYWNlIj7CoCA8L3NwYW4+TnVtYmVyIDUgcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgcHJvZHVjdHMgb2YgdGhlIHJlYWN0aW9uLiBUaGUgcHJvZHVjdHMsIHlvdSBjYW4gc2VlLCB3ZXJlIGZvcm1lcmx5IHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHNob3duIGluIHRoZSBzYW1lIGNvbG9yLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj5bIV0gUXVlc3Rpb24gMTYrKysrKysrKysrKysrK1svIV08L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[q] In the diagram below, the substrate of the reaction is represented by

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDQ8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDU8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZTxzcGFuIGNsYXNzPSJBcHBsZS1jb252ZXJ0ZWQtc3BhY2UiPsKgIDwvc3Bhbj5lbnp5bWUuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGlkZW50aWZ5IHRoZSBzdWJzdHJhdGUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoYXQgdGhlIGVuenltZSBpbnRlcmFjdHMgd2l0aC48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMiByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBhY3RpdmUgc2l0ZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgd2hlcmUgdGhlIGVuenltZSB3aWxsIGJpbmQgd2l0aCBpdHMgc3Vic3RyYXRlLiBTZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBpZGVudGlmeSB0aGUgc3Vic3RyYXRlLCB3aGljaCBpcyB3aGF0IHRoZSBlbnp5bWUgaW50ZXJhY3RzIHdpdGguPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gTnVtYmVyIDMgcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgc3Vic3RyYXRlLCB3aGljaCBpcyBhYm91dCB0byBiaW5kIHdpdGggdGhlIGVuenltZS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUtc3Vic3RyYXRlIGNvbXBsZXgsIHdoaWNoIGluY2x1ZGVzIGJvdGggZW56eW1lIGFuZCBzdWJzdHJhdGUuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGlkZW50aWZ5IGp1c3QgdGhlIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgd2hhdCB0aGUgZW56eW1lIGludGVyYWN0cyB3aXRoLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]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[q] What’s the name for the process where environmental changes (in temperature or pH, for example) cause an enzyme’s shape to change, destroying its function?

[c]IGRlY2F0YWx5emF0aW9uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[c]IGRlZm9ybWF0aW9uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[c]IGRlbmF0dXJhdGlvbjwvcD 4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[c]IGRlZW56eW1pZmljYXRpb24uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgcHJvYmFibHkgcmVjb2duaXplZCDigJhjYXRhbHlzdOKAmSBpbiB0aGlzIGNob2ljZSwgYnV0IHRoYXQgaXMgbm90IHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIuIE5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHRoaW5rIG9mIHRoZSBmYWN0IHRoYXQgZW52aXJvbm1lbnRhbCBmYWN0b3JzIGhhdmUgY2hhbmdlZCB0aGUgbmF0dXJlIG9mIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUuIE9uZSB3b3JkIGluIHRoZSBwcmV2aW91cyBzZW50ZW5jZSBlc3NlbnRpYWxseSB0ZWxscyB5b3UgdGhlIGFuc3dlci48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZW52aXJvbm1lbnRhbCBjaGFuZ2VzIGhhdmUsIGluZGVlZCwgZGVmb3JtZWQgdGhlIGVuenltZSwgYnV0IHRoZXJl4oCZcyBhIGJldHRlciBhbmQgbW9yZSB3aWRlbHkgdXNlZCB0ZXJtLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCB0aGluayBvZiB0aGUgZmFjdCB0aGF0IGVudmlyb25tZW50YWwgZmFjdG9ycyBoYXZlIGNoYW5nZWQgdGhlIG5hdHVyZSBvZiB0aGUgZW56eW1lLiBPbmUgd29yZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJldmlvdXMgc2VudGVuY2UgZXNzZW50aWFsbHkgdGVsbHMgeW91IHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIENoYW5naW5nIGFuIGVuenltZeKAmXMgc2hhcGUgZGVzdHJveXMgaXRzIGFiaWxpdHkgdG8gY2F0YWx5emUgYSByZWFjdGlvbi4gVGhpcyBjaGFuZ2UgaXMgY2FsbGVkIGRlbmF0dXJhdGlvbi4gVGhlIHZlcmIgaXMg4oCYdG8gZGVuYXR1cmUu4oCZPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgcHJvYmFibHkgcmVjb2duaXplZCDigJhlbnp5bWXigJkgaW4gdGhpcyBjaG9pY2UsIGJ1dCB0aGlzIGlzIG5vdCB0aGUgY29ycmVjdCB0ZXJtIChub3QgaXMgaXQgYSByZWFsIHdvcmQpLiBOZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCB0aGluayBvZiB0aGUgZmFjdCB0aGF0IGVudmlyb25tZW50YWwgZmFjdG9ycyBoYXZlIGNoYW5nZWQgdGhlIG5hdHVyZSBvZiB0aGUgZW56eW1lLiBPbmUgd29yZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJldmlvdXMgc2VudGVuY2UgZXNzZW50aWFsbHkgdGVsbHMgeW91IHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPlshXSBRdWVzdGlvbiAxOCsrKysrKysrKysrKysrWy8hXTwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[q] Enzymes have a pH optimum: a pH at which they’ll have maximum activity. In the diagram below, the optimum is shown at

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgb3B0aW11bSBpcyB3aGVyZSB0aGUgZW56eW1l4oCZcyBhY3Rpdml0eSB3aWxsIGJlIHRoZSBoaWdoZXN0LiBFbnp5bWUgYWN0aXZpdHkgaXMgc2hvd24gb24gdGhlIFkgYXhpcywgd2l0aCBoaWdoZXIgbWVhbmluZyBtb3JlIGFjdGl2aXR5LiBOZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCBsb29rIGZvciB0aGUgaGlnaCBwb2ludCBvbiB0aGUgZ3JhcGguPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iIS4gTnVtYmVyIDIgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBlbnp5bWXigJlzIHBIIG9wdGltdW0sIHRoZSBwSCB3aGVyZSB0aGUgZW56eW1l4oCZcyBhY3Rpdml0eSB3aWxsIGJlIGF0IGl0cyBoaWdoZXN0IHJhdGUuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgb3B0aW11bSBpcyB3aGVyZSB0aGUgZW56eW1l4oCZcyBhY3Rpdml0eSB3aWxsIGJlIHRoZSBoaWdoZXN0LiBFbnp5bWUgYWN0aXZpdHkgaXMgc2hvd24gb24gdGhlIFkgYXhpcywgd2l0aCBoaWdoZXIgbWVhbmluZyBtb3JlIGFjdGl2aXR5LiBOZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCBsb29rIGZvciB0aGUgaGlnaCBwb2ludCBvbiB0aGUgZ3JhcGguPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPlshXSBRdWVzdGlvbiAxOSsrKysrKysrKysrKysrWy8hXTwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[q] Enzymes have a pH optimum: a pH at which they’ll have maximum activity. In the diagram below, which number shows where the enzyme has lost its activity because of conditions that are too acidic?

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIEluIHRoZSBwSCBzY2FsZSwgbG93ZXIgbWVhbnMgbW9yZSBhY2lkaWMuIEF0IHBvaW50IDEsIGFjdGl2aXR5IGlzIGxvdyAoc2hvd24gb24gdGhlIFkgYXhpcykgYW5kIHRoZSBwSCBpcyBiZWxvdyB0aGUgb3B0aW11bSBwSCwgd2hpY2ggbWVhbnMgbW9yZSBhY2lkaWMgKGZhciB0byB0aGUgbGVmdCBvbiB0aGUgWCBheGlzKS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMiByZXByZXNlbnRzIGVuenltZeKAmXMgcEggb3B0aW11bSwgdGhlIHBIIHdoZXJlIHRoZSBlbnp5bWXigJlzIGFjdGl2aXR5IHdpbGwgYmUgYXQgaXRzIGhpZ2hlc3QgcmF0ZS48c3BhbiBjbGFzcz0iQXBwbGUtY29udmVydGVkLXNwYWNlIj7CoCA8L3NwYW4+TmV4dCB0aW1lLCBsb29rIGZvciBhbiBudW1iZXIgdGhhdCBzaG93cyBsb3dlciBhY3Rpdml0eSAobG93ZXIgb24gdGhlIFkgYXhpcyksIGFuZCBsb3dlciBwSCAodG8gdGhlIGxlZnQgb24gdGhlIFggYXhpcykuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBBdCBudW1iZXIgMyB0aGUgYWN0aXZpdHkgaXMgbG93IChhcyBzaG93biBieSB0aGUgcG9zaXRpb24gb24gdGhlIFkgYXhpcyksIGJ1dCB0aGUgcG9zaXRpb24gb24gdGhlIFggYXhpcyBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgYSBoaWdoZXIgcEgsIHdoaWNoIHdvdWxkIG1lYW4gbW9yZSBiYXNpYy4gTmV4dCB0aW1lLCBjaG9vc2UgYSBtb3JlIGFjaWRpYyBwb2ludCBvbiB0aGUgZ3JhcGggKGJ1dCB3aXRoIHRoZSBzYW1lIGxldmVsIG9mIGFjdGl2aXR5KS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+WyFdIFF1ZXN0aW9uIDIwKysrKysrKysrKysrKytbLyFdPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[q] In the diagram below, which number shows the optimum temperature for this enzyme?

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IEVuenltZSBhY3Rpdml0eSBpcyBzaG93biBvbiB0aGUgWSBheGlzLiBBdCBwb2ludCBudW1iZXIgMSwgZW56eW1lIGFjdGl2aXR5IGlzIHZlcnkgbG93LiBBdCB0aGUgb3B0aW11bSB0ZW1wZXJhdHVyZSwgYWN0aXZpdHkgd291bGQgYmUgaGlnaGVzdC48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudDogdGhlIG9wdGltdW0gdGVtcGVyYXR1cmUgaXMgdGhlIG9uZSB3aGVyZSBhY3Rpdml0eSB3b3VsZCBiZSB0aGUgaGlnaGVzdCBvbiB0aGUgWSBheGlzLCBhcyBzaG93biBhdCBwb2ludCAyLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IEVuenltZSBhY3Rpdml0eSBpcyBzaG93biBvbiB0aGUgWSBheGlzLiBBdCBwb2ludCBudW1iZXIgMywgZW56eW1lIGFjdGl2aXR5IGlzIHZlcnkgbG93LiBBdCB0aGUgb3B0aW11bSB0ZW1wZXJhdHVyZSwgYWN0aXZpdHkgd291bGQgYmUgaGlnaGVzdC48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+WyFdIFF1ZXN0aW9uIDIxKysrKysrKysrKysrKytbLyFdPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[q] In the diagram below, which number shows point where denaturation has caused enzyme activity to fall.

[c]IDE8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDI8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IDM8L3A+CjxwIG NsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]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[f]IE5vLiBFbnp5bWUgYWN0aXZpdHkgaXMgc2hvd24gb24gdGhlIFkgYXhpcy4gQXQgcG9pbnQgbnVtYmVyIDIsIGFjdGl2aXR5IGlzIHZlcnkgaGlnaCwgd2hpY2ggbWVhbnMgdGhhdCB0aGUgZW56eW1lIGlzIHByb2JhYmx5IGluIGdvb2Qgc2hhcGUgKG5vdCBkZW5hdHVyZWQpLjxzcGFuIGNsYXNzPSJBcHBsZS1jb252ZXJ0ZWQtc3BhY2UiPsKgIDwvc3Bhbj5EZW5hdHVyYXRpb24gdXN1YWxseSBjb21lcyBhYm91dCBieSBleGNlc3NpdmUgdGVtcGVyYXR1cmUuIFRoaW5rIG9mIHRoYXQgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQXQgcG9pbnQgMywgdGVtcGVyYXR1cmUgaXMgaGlnaCAoYXMgc2hvd24gb24gdGhlIFggYXhpcyksIGFuZCBhY3Rpdml0eSBpcyBsb3cgKGFzIHNob3duIG9uIHRoZSBZIGF4aXMpLiBFeGNlc3NpdmUgaGVhdCBjYW4gY2F1c2UgZW56eW1lcyB0byBkZW5hdHVyZSwgZGVzdHJveWluZyB0aGVpciBhY3Rpdml0eS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+WyFdIFF1ZXN0aW9uIDIyKysrKysrKysrKysrKytbLyFdPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[q] Which of the following environmental changes would be LEAST LIKELY to cause enzymes to denature.

[c]IHRvbyBtdWNoIHN1YnN0cmF0ZS 48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IHRvbyBtdWNoIGhlYXQ8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]IHRvbyBtdWNoIHNhbHQuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[c]IGEgcEggd2F5IGFib3ZlIHRoZSBvcHRpbXVtLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]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[f]IE5vLiBIZWF0IGlzIGEgbWFqb3IgZmFjdG9yIGJlaGluZCBlbnp5bWUgZGVuYXR1cmF0aW9uLiBUaGUgcmVhc29uIHdoeSBpcyB0aGF0IGVuenltZXMgYXJlIHByb3RlaW5zLCBhbmQgcHJvdGVpbnMgaGF2ZSBhIDMtRCBzaGFwZSB0aGF04oCZcyBkZXRlcm1pbmVkLCBpbiBwYXJ0LCBieSB3ZWFrIGZvcmNlcyBsaWtlIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGJvbmRzIHdoaWNoIGNhbiBlYXNpbHkgYmUgZGlzcnVwdGVkLiBUb28gbXVjaCBoZWF0IGNhbiBjaGFuZ2UgYW4gZW56eW1l4oCZcyBzaGFwZSwgZGVuYXR1cmluZyBpdC4gTmV4dCB0aW1lLCBjaG9vc2UgYW5vdGhlciBhbnN3ZXIuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]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[f]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[q] Beano is a commercial enzyme product that claims to reduce flatulence (farting) by providing enzymes that break down certain carbohydrates that people sometimes have difficulty digesting. The product information tells you not to cook Beano with your food, but to ingest the enzyme tablets just before eating. Why can’t you cook Beano with your food?

[c]IFRoZSBlbnp5bWVzIGluIEJlYW5vLCBtaXhlZCB3aXRoIHlvdXIgZm9vZCwgd291bGQgYnJlYWsgYWxsIG9mIHRoZSBmb29kIGRvd24sIGxlYXZpbmcgeW91IHdpdGggYSBzb2dneSBtdXNoLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[c]IFRoZSBlbnp5bWVzIGluIEJlYW5vIHRhc3RlIGhvcnJpYmxlLCBhbmQgd291bGQgcnVpbiBhbnkgZGlzaCB0aGF0IHlvdSBjb29rZWQuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[c]IEJlYW5vIG5lZWRzIGFuIGFjaWRpYyBlbnZpcm9ubWVudCwgYW5kIG5lZWRzIHRvIGdldCBkb3duIHRvIHlvdXIgc3RvbWFjaCBiZWZvcmUgdGhlIGZvb2QgZ2V0cyB0aGVyZS48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[c]PHNwYW4gY2xhc3M9IkFwcGxlLWNvbnZlcnRlZC1zcGFjZSI+wqAgPC9zcGFuPkJlYW5vIGNvbnRhaW5zIGVuenltZXMuIExpa2UgbW9zdCBlbnp5bWVzLCBpdCB3aWxsIGJlIG RlbmF0dXJlZCBieSBoaWdoIHRlbXBlcmF0dXJlcy4gVGhlcmVmb3JlIGNvb2tpbmcgd291bGQgcnVpbiBCZWFub+KAmXMgYWN0aXZpdHkuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHJvYmxlbSByZWxhdGVzIHRvIHRoZSBlZmZlY3QgdGhhdCBoZWF0IGhhcyBvbiBlbnp5bWVzLiBJZiB5b3UgY29va2VkIEJlYW5vIHdpdGggeW91ciBmb29kLCB5b3XigJlkIGJlIGV4cG9zaW5nIGl0IHRvIGZhaXJseSBleHRyZW1lIHRlbXBlcmF0dXJlcy4gS2VlcCB0aGF0IGluIG1pbmQgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IE5vLiB3aXRob3V0IGJlaW5nIHRvbyBwZXJzb25hbCwgSeKAmXZlIHRyaWVkIEJlYW5vIG15c2VsZi4gSXQgaGFzIGEgc2xpZ2h0bHkgc2FsdHkgdGFzdGUsIGEgYml0IHBvd2RlcnksIGJ1dCBub3RoaW5nIHRoYXQgd291bGQgcnVpbiBhIGRpc2guIFRoZSBwcm9ibGVtIHJlbGF0ZXMgdG8gdGhlIGVmZmVjdCB0aGF0IGhlYXQgaGFzIG9uIGVuenltZXMuIEtlZXAgdGhhdCBpbiBtaW5kIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj4=[f]IE5vLCBidXQgdGhhdOKAmXMgcmVhc29uYWJsZSBndWVzcywgYW5kIHlvdSB3ZXJlIHByb2JhYmx5IHRoaW5raW5nIG9mIHRoZSBmYWN0IHRoYXQgdGhlIGZsdWlkIGluIHRoZSBzdG9tYWNoIGlzIGhpZ2hseSBhY2lkaWMuIEJ1dCBtb3N0IGRpZ2VzdGlvbiAoYW5kIGdhcyBwcm9kdWN0aW9uKSBhY3R1YWxseSBoYXBwZW5zIGluIHRoZSBpbnRlc3RpbmVzLCB3aGljaCBpcyBzbGlnaHRseSBiYXNpYyBpbiB0ZXJtcyBvZiBwSC4gVGhlIGtleSB0byB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGhhcyB0byBkbyB3aXRoIGNvb2tpbmcgQmVhbm8uIEhlYXQgaGFzIGEgcHJvYmxlbWF0aWMgZWZmZWN0IHVwb24gZW56eW1lcy4gS2VlcCB0aGF0IGluIG1pbmQgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0icDEiPg==[f]IFRoYXTigJlzIGV4YWN0bHkgcmlnaHQuIElmIHlvdSBjb29rZWQgQmVhbm8sIHlvdeKAmWQgZGVuYXR1cmUgaXRzIGVuenltZXMsIG1ha2luZyBpdCBpbmVmZmVjdGl2ZSBhdCBoZWxwaW5nIHlvdSBicmVhayBkb3duIHRoZSBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGVzIHRoYXQgY2F1c2UgZ2FzLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9InAxIj5bIV0gUXVlc3Rpb24gMjUrKysrKysrKysrKysrK1svIV08L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJwMSI+[q] Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by an inherited enzyme deficiency (the body’s inability to produce an enzyme)?

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